Recommended Readings: Paul Bieniasz, Ph.D., December 14th

Monday Lecture Series
Monday, December 14, 2015
4:00 p.m., Carson Family Auditorium (CRC)

Paul Bieniasz, Ph.D.
Professor and Head,
Laboratory of Retrovirology,
The Rockefeller University and Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center
Investigator, Howard Hughes Medical Institute

Retroviruses vs. Cells in Ancient and Modern Times

Recommended Reading

Empirical Articles

Busnadiego, I., Kane, M., Rihn, S. J., Preugschas, H. F., Hughes, J., Blanco-Melo, D., … & Wilson, S. J. (2014). Host and viral determinants of Mx2 antiretroviral activity. Journal of Virology, 88(14), 7738-7752. doi:10.1128/JVI.00214-14.

Hatziioannou, T., Del Prete, G. Q., Keele, B. F., Estes, J. D., McNatt, M. W., Bitzegeio, J., … & Bieniasz, P. D. (2014). HIV-1–induced AIDS in monkeys. Science, 344(6190), 1401-1405. doi:10.1126/science.1250761.

Kane, M., Yadav, S. S., Bitzegeio, J., Kutluay, S. B., Zang, T., Wilson, S. J., … & Bieniasz, P. D. (2013). MX2 is an interferon-induced inhibitor of HIV-1 infection. Nature, 502(7472), 563-566. doi:10.1038/nature12653.

Kutluay, S. B., Zang, T., Blanco-Melo, D., Powell, C., Jannain, D., Errando, M., & Bieniasz, P. D. (2014). Global changes in the RNA binding specificity of HIV-1 gag regulate virion genesis. Cell, 159(5), 1096-1109. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014.09.057.

Rihn, S. J., Hughes, J., Wilson, S. J., & Bieniasz, P. D. (2015). Uneven genetic robustness of HIV-1 integrase. Journal of Virology, 89(1), 552-567. doi: 10.1128/JVI.02451-14.

Review Papers

Malim, M. H., & Bieniasz, P. D. (2012). HIV restriction factors and mechanisms of evasion. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine, 2(5), a006940.  doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a006940.

Scientists Spot New Clues to HIV-Linked Dementia

Researchers have identified two genetically distinct types of HIV in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with HIV-associated dementia.   The discovery may help explain why the risk of developing neurological difficulties increases as AIDS patients live longer, and may also help predict which patients are at greatest risk for the problem, according to the U.S. scientists.  They said the two newly-identified HIV types aren’t being detected in HIV that circulates in a patient’s blood, and one type may be present cerebrospinal fluid years before the onset of HIV-linked dementia.  The fact that the two HIV types can be detected in the CSF indicates that they grow in the central nervous system. 

The study, which appears in the journal PLoS Pathogens, was led by researchers at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine.

Research Sheds Light on Cause of Brain Deficits in HIV Patients

Some HIV patients experience memory loss and other neurological deficits, despite treatment, and new research suggests that the reason why is because the virus weakens the blood-brain barrier by infecting a small group of supporting brain cells called astrocytes.   The finding, published in the June 29 issue of the Journal of Neuroscience, may help explain why 40 percent to 60 percent of HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy experience mild to moderate neurological problems such as learning difficulties.

Scientists reveal HIV weakness

Development of an HIV vaccine has been seriously hampered by the fact that the retrovirus mutates so rapidly.  In a new finding that may allow vaccine designers to sidestep part of that obstacle, researchers at the Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, MIT and Harvard University have identified sections of an HIV protein where mutations would actually undermine the virus’ fitness — its ability to survive and reproduce. Vaccines that prime immune cells to specifically target those vulnerable regions could prove much more effective than previously tested vaccines.   Read these latest HIV research findings in PNAS Early Online.

Recommended Readings: Sarah Schlesinger M.D. March 7, 2011

Monday Lecture Series

Vaccines that Target Dendritic Cells

Sarah Schlesinger  M.D.

Senior Attending Physician and Associate Professor of Clinical Investigation

 Cellular Physiology and Immunology

March 7, 2011

4:00 p.m.-5:00 p.m. Caspary Auditorium

Recommended Readings

Dhodapkar MV; Sznol M; Wang D, et al.  2010.  Early development of CDX-1401, a novel vaccine targeting NY-ESO-1 to the dendritic cel receptor DEC-205.  Journal of Immunotherapy.  33(8):895-896   Request Article from Markus Library. 

Wanialla CN; Faul EJ; Gomme EA, et al.  2010.  Dendritic cells infected by recombinant rabies virus vaccine vector expressing HIV-1 Gag are immunogenic even in the presence of vector-specific  immunityVaccine.  29(1):130-140

Fiorentini S; Giagulli C; Caccuri F, et al.  2010.  HIV-1 matrix protein p17: a candidate antigen for therapeutic vaccines against AIDS.   Pharmacology & Therapeutics.  128(3):433-444  Request Article from Markus Library.

De Groot A; Buhlmann J; Weber C, et al.  2010.  De-Tolerization of anti-DEC-205 for HIV vaccine delivery.  (abstract only)  AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses.   26(10):A135-A136

Ahlers, JD; and  IM Belyakov.  2009.  Strategies for optimizing targeting and delivery of mucosal HIV vaccinesEuropean Journal of Immunology.  39(10):2657-2669

Kloverpris HN; Karlsson I; Thorn M, et al.  2009.   Immune hierarchy among HIV-1 CD8+T cell epitopes delivered by dendritic cells depends on MHC-I binding irrespective of mode of loading and immunization of HLA-A*0201 mice.  APMIS  117(11):8489-855

Demberg T; and M. Robert-Guroff.  2009.  Mucosal immunity and protection against HIV-SIV infection: strategies and challenges for vaccine design.  International Reviews of Immunology.  28(1-2):20-28   Please request from Markus Library.

Gruber A; Chalmers AS; Rasmussem RA, et al.  2007.  Dendritic cell-based vaccine strategy against human immunodeficiency virus clade C: skewing the immune response toward a helper T cell type 2 profile.   Viral Immunology.  20(1):160-169.

The Use of siRNA Techniques To Silence HIV

Prof. Jyoti Chattopadhyaya from Uppsala University and colleagues from India have synthesised modified siRNAs targetting the TAR region of HIV-1, some of which exhibit a four-fold enhanced half-life in serum over the native unmodified siRNA. The best compound synthesised had an IC50 more than three-fold lower than that of the native and two-fold lower than that of the existing locked nucleic acid (LNA) modified counterpart.  The strategy to chemically modify the native siRNAs by substitution with the jcLNA can be considered as a significant development, leading to both enhanced siRNA efficiency and serum stability over that of the native.  Read more in MedChemComm.

Recommended Readings: Paul Bieniasz Ph.D. March 1 2010

Monday Lecture Series

Retrovirus Replication in Hostile Host Cells

Paul Bieniasz, Ph.D.

Associate Professor; Investigator, HHMI


Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center:  Laboratory of Retrovirology

4:00p.m.-5:00 p.m.

Recommended Readings:

Fritz JV, Dujardin D, Godet J, et al.   2010. HIV-1 Vpr Oligomerization but Not That of Gag Directs the Interaction between Vpr and Gag. JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY 84(3): 1585-1596

Jouvenet, N; Simon, SM; Bieniasz, PD.  2009.  Imaging the interaction of HIV-1 genomes and Gag during assembly of individual viral particles. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 106(45): 19114-19119

Zhang, FW; Wilson, SJ; Landford, WC, et al.   2009.  Nef Proteins from Simian Immunodeficiency Viruses Are Tetherin Antagonists. CELL HOST & MICROBE 6(1): 54-67

Neil, Stuart; Bieniasz, Paul    2009.  Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Restriction Factors, and Interferon.  Journal of Interferon and Cytokine Research    29(9): 569-580 Request from Markus Library.

Bieniasz, PD.  2009.  The Cell Biology of HIV-1 Virion Genesis. CELL HOST & MICROBE   5(6): 550-558

Hatziioannou, T; Ambrose, Z; Chung, NPY, et al.   2009.   A macaque model of HIV-1 infection. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 106(11): 4425-4429

Immediate, Aggressive Spending on HIV/AIDS Could End Epidemic

ScienceDaily (Nov. 18, 2009) — Money available to treat HIV/AIDS is sufficient to end the epidemic globally, but only if we act immediately to control the spread of the disease. That was the conclusion of a study just published in the open-access journal, BMC Public Health. This approach defies conventional thinking, which recommends gradual spending over 15-20 years. Canadian Researchers found that an aggressive program over five years is the only way to end the epidemic given our current resources.  The study, part of a supplement on “The OptAIDS project: towards global halting of HIV/AIDS,” was based on a leading-edge mathematical model developed by mathematicians and biologists.   The research is in press; read more at ScienceDaily….

AIDS: Clues To Virus-cancer Link Uncovered

ScienceDaily (June 18, 2009) — In a series of recently-published articles, a research team from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center has uncovered clues to the development of cancers in AIDS patients.  The first article published in April in PLoS Pathogens demonstrated that the Kaposi sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is not only present in every tumor cell, but that the cells also transcribe microRNAs (miRNA) from the virus.   The second study was published June 4 in the journal Blood looked at the activity of several miRNAs known to suppress tumor activity.   Finding the mechanisms through which viruses take over cellular systems, resulting in cancer, is a promising strategy for cancer prevention and treatment, since it is much more feasible to block viral infection or develop specific inhibitors of the viral genes than try to inhibit all of the genetic changes within a cancer.