Recommended Readings: Gabriel D. Victora, Ph.D., Monday April 23, 2018

Monday Lectures

Monday, April 23, 2018  4:00 p.m.

Carson Family Auditorium

Gabriel D. Victora, Ph.D.

Laurie and Peter Grauer Assistant Professor and Head

Laboratory of Lymphocyte Dynamics

The Rockefeller University

Clonal and Cellular Dynamics of Antibody Evolution

Recommended Readings:

Science News

New tool for tracking ‘kiss-and-run’ communication between cells. January 30, 2018. ScienceDaily

Empirical Articles

Pasqual G, Chudnovskiy A, Tas JMJ, Agudelo M, Schweitzer LD, Cui A, Hacohen N, Victora GD. (2018). Monitoring T cell-dendritic cell interactions in vivo by intercellular enzymatic labelling. NATURE. 553 (7689): 496-500

Degn, Soren E.; van der Poel, Cees E.; Firl, Daniel J.; et al. (2017). Clonal Evolution of Autoreactive Germinal Centers. CELL. 170 (5): 913-+

Ersching, Jonatan; Efeyan, Alejo; Mesin, Luka; et al. (2017). Germinal Center Selection and Affinity Maturation Require Dynamic Regulation of mTORC1 Kinase. IMMUNITY. 46 (6): 1045-+

Amitai, Assaf; Mesin, Luka; Victora, Gabriel D.; et al. (2017). A Population Dynamics Model for Clonal Diversity in a Germinal Center. FRONTIERS IN MICROBIOLOGY. 8  

Tas, Jeroen M. J.; Mesin, Luka; Pasqual, Giulia; et al. (2016). Visualizing antibody affinity maturation in germinal centers. SCIENCE. 351 (6277): 1048-1054

Shulman, Ziv; Gitlin, Alexander D.; Targ, Sasha; et al. (2013). T Follicular Helper Cell Dynamics in Germinal Centers. SCIENCE. 341 (6146): 673-677

Victora, Gabriel D.; Dominguez-Sola, David; Holmes, Antony B.; et al. (2012). Identification of human germinal center light and dark zone cells and their relationship to human B-cell lymphomas. BLOOD. 120 (11): 2240-2248

Victora, Gabriel D.; Schwickert, Tanja A.; Fooksman, David R.; et al. (2010). Germinal Center Dynamics Revealed by Multiphoton Microscopy with a Photoactivatable Fluorescent Reporter. CELL. 143 (4): 592-605

Review Papers

Mesin, Luka; Ersching, Jonatan; Victora, Gabriel D. (2016). Germinal Center B Cell Dynamics. IMMUNITY. 45 (3): 471-482

Victora, Gabriel D.; Wilson, Patrick C. (2015). Germinal Center Selection and the Antibody Response to Influenza. CELL. 163 (3): 545-548

Victora, Gabriel D.; Mesin, Luka. (2014). Clonal and cellular dynamics in germinal centers. CURRENT OPINION IN IMMUNOLOGY. 28: 90-96 

Book Chapter

Victora, Gabriel D.; Nussenzweig, Michel C. (2012). Germinal Centers. ANNUAL REVIEW OF IMMUNOLOGY. 30: 429-457    

Recommended Readings: Shai Shaham, Ph.D., Monday April 16, 2018

Monday Lectures

Monday, April 16, 2018  4:00 p.m.

Carson Family Auditorium

Shai Shaham, Ph.D.

Richard E. Salomon Family Professor and Head

Laboratory of Developmental Genetics

The Rockefeller University

Uncovering Cell Death Treasure Hiding in Plain Sight

Recommended Readings:

Science News

Brandon Specktor. See How a Single Cell Dies in Gory, Intricate Detail. (March 28, 2018). Live Science

Empirical Articles

Ghose P, Rashid A, Insley P, Trivedi M, Shah P, Singhal A, Lu Y, Bao Z, Shaham S. (2018). EFF-1 fusogen promotes phagosome sealing during cell process clearance in Caenorhabditis elegans. NATURE CELL BIOLOGY. 20 (4):393-399

Malin, Jennifer A.; Kinet, Maxime J.; Abraham, Mary C.; et al. (2016). Transcriptional control of non-apoptotic developmental cell death in C-elegans. CELL DEATH AND DIFFERENTIATION. 23 (12): 1985-1994

Schwendeman, Andrew R.; Shaham, Shai. (2016). A High-Throughput Small Molecule Screen for C-elegans Linker Cell Death Inhibitors. PLOS ONE. 11 (10) 

Kinet, Maxime J.; Malin, Jennifer A.; Abraham, Mary C.; et al. (2016). HSF-1 activates the ubiquitin proteasome system to promote non-apoptotic developmental cell death in C. elegans. ELIFE. 5

Blum, Elyse S.; Abraham, Mary C.; Yoshimura, Satoshi; et al. (2012). Control of Nonapoptotic Developmental Cell Death in Caenorhabditis elegans by a Polyglutamine-Repeat Protein. SCIENCE. 335 (6071): 970-973

Review Papers

Kutscher, Lena M.; Shaham, Shai (2017). Non-apoptotic cell death in animal development. CELL DEATH AND DIFFERENTIATION. 24 (8): 1326-1336

Blum, Elyse S.; Schwendeman, Andrew R.; Shaham, Shai. (2013). PolyQ disease: misfiring of a developmental cell death program? TRENDS IN CELL BIOLOGY. 23 (4): 168-174  

Book Chapters

Malin, Jennifer Zuckerman; Shaham, Shai. (2015). Cell Death in C. elegans Development. CURRENT TOPICS IN DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY. 114: 1-42

Kinet, Maxime J.; Shaham, Shai. (2014). Noncanonical Cell Death in the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. METHODS IN ENZYMOLOGY. 545: 157-180

 

Recommended Readings: Daniel Kronauer, Ph.D. Monday April 9, 2018

Monday Lectures

Monday, April 9, 2018  4:00 p.m.

Caspary Auditorium

Daniel Kronauer, Ph.D.

Stanley S. and Sydney R. Shuman Associate Professor and Head

Laboratory of Social Evolution and Behavior

The Rockefeller University

The Evolution of Eusociality in Ants

Recommended Readings:

Science News

Substance that guides ant trail is produced by symbiotic bacteria. April 9, 2018. ScienceDaily

Empirical Articles

von Beeren, Christoph; Brueckner, Adrian; Maruyama, Munetoshi; et al. (2018). Chemical and behavioral integration of army ant-associated rove beetles – a comparison between specialists and generalists. FRONTIERS IN ZOOLOGY. 15

Ulrich, Yuko; Burns, Dominic; Libbrecht, Romain; et al. (2016). Ant larvae regulate worker foraging behavior and ovarian activity in a dose-dependent manner. BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY AND SOCIOBIOLOGY. 70 (7): 1011-1018

Libbrecht, Romain; Oxley, Peter Robert; Keller, Laurent; et al. (2016). Robust DNA Methylation in the Clonal Raider Ant Brain. CURRENT BIOLOGY. 26 (3): 391-395

Oxley, Peter R.; Ji, Lu; Fetter-Pruneda, Ingrid; et al. (2014). The Genome of the Clonal Raider Ant Cerapachys biroi. CURRENT BIOLOGY. 24 (4): 451-458

Abbot, Patrick; Abe, Jun; Alcock, John; et al. (2011). Inclusive fitness theory and eusociality. NATURE. 471 (7339): E1-E4  

Review Papers

Trible, Waring; Kronauer, Daniel J. C. (2017). Caste development and evolution in ants: it’s all about size. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY. 220 (1): 53-62

Libbrecht, Romain; Oxley, Peter R.; Kronauer, Daniel J. C.; et al. (2013). Ant genomics sheds light on the molecular regulation of social organization. GENOME BIOLOGY. 14 (7)

Book Chapter

Ivens, Aniek B. F.; von Beeren, Christoph; Bluethgen, Nico; et al. (2016). Studying the Complex Communities of Ants and Their Symbionts Using Ecological Network Analysis. ANNUAL REVIEW OF ENTOMOLOGY. 6: 353-+

 

Recommended Readings: Erich Jarvis, Ph.D. Friday March 2nd, 2018

Friday Lectures

Friday, March 2nd, 2018  3:45 p.m.

Caspary Auditorium

Erich Jarvis, Ph.D.

Professor and Head

Laboratory of Neurogenetics of Language

The Rockefeller University

Insights from non-human animals into the neurobiology of spoken language 

Recommended Readings:

Science News

Jordana Cepelewicz. In Birds’ Songs, Brains and Genes, He Finds Clues to Speech. (2018, Jan 30). Quanta Magazine

Empirical Articles

Lei, Huimeng; Yan, Zhangming; Sun, Xiaohong; et al. (2017). Axon guidance pathways served as common targets for human speech/language evolution and related disorders. BRAIN AND LANGUAGE. 174: 1-8

Korlach, Jonas; Gedman, Gregory; Kingan, Sarah B.; et al. (2017). De novo PacBio long-read and phased avian genome assemblies correct and add to reference genes generated with intermediate and short reads. GIGASCIENCE. 6 (10)

Chabout, Jonathan; Jones-Macopson, Joshua; Jarvis, Erich D. (2017). Eliciting and Analyzing Male Mouse Ultrasonic Vocalization (USV) Songs. JOVE-JOURNAL OF VISUALIZED EXPERIMENTS. 123  

Chabout, Jonathan; Sarkar, Abhra; Patel, Sheel R.; et al. (2016). A Foxp2 Mutation Implicated in Human Speech Deficits Alters Sequencing of Ultrasonic Vocalizations in Adult Male Mice. FRONTIERS IN BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE. 10   

Jarvis, Erich D.; Mirarab, Siavash; Aberer, Andre J.; et al. (2014). Whole-genome analyses resolve early branches in the tree of life of modern birds. SCIENCE. 346 (6215): 1320-1331

Pfenning, Andreas R.; Hara, Erina; Whitney, Osceola; et al. (2014). Convergent transcriptional specializations in the brains of humans and song-learning birds. SCIENCE. 346 (6215): 1333-+

Review Papers

Theofanopoulou, Constantina; Boeckx, Cedric; Jarvis, Erich D. (2017). A hypothesis on a role of oxytocin in the social mechanisms of speech and vocal learning. PNAS. 284 (1861)

Simonyan, Kristina; Horwitz, Barry; Jarvis, Erich D. (2012). Dopamine regulation of human speech and bird song: A critical review. BRAIN AND LANGUAGE. 122 (3): 142-150

Book Chapter

Jarvis, Erich D. (2016). Perspectives from the Avian Phylogenomics Project: Questions that Can Be Answered with Sequencing All Genomes of a Vertebrate Class. ANNUAL REVIEW OF ANIMAL BIOSCIENCES. 4: 45-59

 

Recommended Readings: Elaine Fuchs, Ph.D. Friday February 23rd, 2018

Friday Lectures

Friday, February 23rd, 2018  3:45 p.m.

Caspary Auditorium

Elaine Fuchs, Ph.D.

Rebecca C. Lancefield Professor and Head

Robin Chemers Neustein Laboratory of Mammalian Cell Biology and Development

The Rockefeller University

Stem Cells in Silence, Action, and Cancer

Recommended Readings:

Science News

David Nield. Our Skin Can ‘Remember’ Inflammation, And It Could Help Us Understand Psoriasis. (2017, Oct 21). ScienceAlert

Empirical Articles

Naik, Shruti; Larsen, Samantha B.; Gomez, Nicholas C.; et al. (2017). Inflammatory memory sensitizes skin epithelial stem cells to tissue damage. NATURE. 550 (7677): 475-+

Ge, Yejing; Gomez, Nicholas C.; Adam, Rene C.; et al. (2017). Stem Cell Lineage Infidelity Drives Wound Repair and Cancer. CELL. 169 (4): 636-650

Yang, Hanseul; Adam, Rene C.; Ge, Yejing; et al. (2017). Epithelial-Mesenchymal Micro-niches Govern Stem Cell Lineage Choices. CELL. 69 (3): 483-+  

Asare, Amma; Levorse, John; Fuchs, Elaine. (2017). Coupling organelle inheritance with mitosis to balance growth and differentiation. SCIENCE. 355 (6324): 493-+

Sendoel, Ataman; Dunn, Joshua G.; Rodriguez, Edwin H.; et al. (2017). Translation from unconventional 5 ‘ start sites drives tumour initiation. NATURE. 541 (7638)

Lay, Kenneth; Kume, Tsutomu; Fuchs, Elaine (2016). FOXC1 maintains the hair follicle stem cell niche and governs stem cell quiescence to preserve long-term tissue-regenerating potential. PNAS. 113 (11): E1506-E1515

Ouspenskaia, Tamara; Matos, Irina; Mertz, Aaron F.; et al. (2016). WNT-SHH Antagonism Specifies and Expands Stem Cells prior to Niche Formation. CELL. 164 (1-2): 156-169

Yang, Hanseul; Schramek, Daniel; Adam, Rene C.; et al. (2015). ETS family transcriptional regulators drive chromatin dynamics and malignancy in squamous cell carcinomas. ELIFE. 4. # e10870

Review Papers

Gonzales, Kevin Andrew Uy; Fuchs, Elaine (2017). Skin and Its Regenerative Powers: An Alliance between Stem Cells and Their Niche.  DEVELOPMENTAL CELL. 43 (4): 387-401

Blanpain, Cedric; Fuchs, Elaine (2014). STEM CELL PLASTICITY Plasticity of epithelial stem cells in tissue regeneration. SCIENCE. 344 (6189): 1243-+

Hsu, Ya-Chieh; Li, Lishi; Fuchs, Elaine (2014). Emerging interactions between skin stem cells and their niches. NATURE MEDICINE. 20 (8): 847-856

Book Chapter

Fuchs, Elaine (2016). Epithelial Skin Biology: Three Decades of Developmental Biology, a Hundred Questions Answered and a Thousand New Ones to Address. ESSAYS ON DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY, PT A  Book Series: Current Topics in Developmental Biology. 116: 357-+  

 

Recommended Readings: Laura Landweber, Ph.D. Friday February 2nd, 2018

Friday Lectures

Friday, February 2nd, 2018  3:45 p.m.

Caspary Auditorium

Laura Landweber, Ph.D.

 Professor

Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics and Biological Sciences

Columbia University

RNA-programmed genome rearrangement and editing in the ciliate Oxytricha

Recommended Readings:

Science News

Greg Miller. This Bizarre Organism Builds Itself a New Genome Every Time It Has Sex. (2014, Sep 17). Wired

Empirical Articles

Khurana, Jaspreet S.; Clay, Derek M.; Moreira, Sandrine; et al.(2018). Small RNA-mediated regulation of DNA dosage in the ciliate Oxytricha. RNA. 24 (1): 18-29

Lindblad, Kelsi A.; Bracht, John R.; Williams, April E.; et al. (2017). Thousands of RNA-cached copies of whole chromosomes are present in the ciliate Oxytricha during development. RNA. 23 (8): 1200-1208

Chen, Xiao; Bracht, John R.; Goldman, Aaron David; et al. (2014). The Architecture of a Scrambled Genome Reveals Massive Levels of Genomic Rearrangement during Development. CELL. 158 (5): 1187-1198

Swart, Estienne C.; Bracht, John R.; Magrini, Vincent; et al. (2013). The Oxytricha trifallax Macronuclear Genome: A Complex Eukaryotic Genome with 16,000 Tiny Chromosomes. PLOS BIOLOGY. 11 (1).

Goldman, Aaron David; Landweber, Laura F. (2012). Oxytricha as a modern analog of ancient genome evolution. TRENDS IN GENETICS. 28 (8): 382-388

Fang, Wenwen; Wang, Xing; Bracht, John R.; et al. (2012). Piwi-Interacting RNAs Protect DNA against Loss during Oxytricha Genome Rearrangement. CELL. 151 (6): 1243-1255

Nowacki, Mariusz; Haye, Joanna E.; Fang, Wenwen; et al. (2010). RNA-mediated epigenetic regulation of DNA copy number. PNAS. 107 (51): 22140-22144

Nowacki, Mariusz; Vijayan, Vikram; Zhou, Yi; et al. (2008). RNA-mediated epigenetic programming of a genome-rearrangement pathway. NATURE. 451 (7175): 153-U4

Review Papers

Bracht, John R.; Fang, Wenwen; Goldman, Aaron David; et al. (2013). Genomes on the Edge: Programmed Genome Instability in Ciliates. CELL. 152 (3): 406-416

Goldman, Aaron David; Landweber, Laura F. (2012). Oxytricha as a modern analog of ancient genome evolution. TRENDS IN GENETICS. 28 (8): 382-388

Book Chapter

Nowacki, Mariusz; Shetty, Keerthi; Landweber, Laura F. (2011). RNA-Mediated Epigenetic Programming of Genome Rearrangements. ANNUAL REVIEW OF GENOMICS AND HUMAN GENETICS. Book Series: Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics. 12: 367-389

Edited Books

Landweber, L. F. and Winfree, E., eds. (2003) Evolution as Computation. Springer Verlag.

Landweber, L. F. and Dobson, A. P., eds. (1999) Genetics and the Extinction of Species: DNA and the Conservation of Biodiversity. Princeton University Press. PLEASE REQUEST FROM MARKUS LIBRARY.

Landweber, L. and Baum, E., eds. (1998) DNA Based Computers II. American Mathematical Society. PLEASE REQUEST FROM MARKUS LIBRARY.

 

Recommended Readings: Thomas Tuschl, Ph.D., Monday October 30th, 2017

Monday Lectures

Monday, October 30, 2017  3:45 p.m.

Carson Family Auditorium

Thomas Tuschl, Ph.D.

Professor and Head

Laboratory of RNA Molecular Biology

The Rockefeller University

Molecular and Textual RNA Quality Control

Recommended Readings:

Garzia, Aitor; Jafarnejad, Seyed Mehdi; Meyer, Cindy; et al. (2017). The E3 ubiquitin ligase and RNA-binding protein ZNF598 orchestrates ribosome quality control of premature polyadenylated mRNAs.  NATURE COMMUNICATIONS. Article Number:16056

Juszkiewicz, Szymon; Hegde, Ramanujan S. (2017). Initiation of Quality Control during Poly(A) Translation Requires Site-Specific Ribosome Ubiquitination. MOLECULAR CELL.  65 (4): 743-+

Garzia, Aitor; Meyer, Cindy; Morozov, Pavel; et al. (2017). Optimization of PAR-CLIP for transcriptome-wide identification of binding sites of RNAbinding proteins. METHODS. 118: 24-40

Sundaramoorthy, Elayanambi; Leonard, Marilyn; Mak, Raymond; et al. (2017). ZNF598 and RACK1 Regulate Mammalian Ribosome-Associated Quality Control Function by Mediating Regulatory 40S Ribosomal Ubiquitylation. MOLECULAR CELL. 65 (4 ): 751-+

Gerstberger, Stefanie; Hafner, Markus; Tuschl, Thomas (2014). A census of human RNA-binding proteins. NATURE REVIEWS GENETICS. 15 (12): 829-845

Zhao, Shanrong; Prenger, Kurt; Smith, Lance; et al. (2013). Rainbow: a tool for large-scale whole-genome sequencing data analysis using cloud computing. BMC GENOMICS. 14

Hafner, Markus; Landthaler, Markus; Burger, Lukas; et al. (2010). Transcriptome-wide Identification of RNA-Binding Protein and MicroRNA Target Sites by PAR-CLIP. CELL. 41 (1): 129-141

Recommended Readings: Luciano Marraffini, Ph.D., Friday October 20th, 2017

Friday Lectures

Friday, October 20, 2017  3:45 p.m.

Caspary Auditorium

Luciano Marraffini, Ph.D.

Associate Professor and Head

Laboratory of Bacteriology

The Rockefeller University

CRISPR-Cas, Acquired Immunity in Prokaryotes

 

Recommended Readings:

Niewoehner, Ole; Garcia-Doval, Carmela; Rostol, Jakob T.; et al. (2017). Type III CRISPR-Cas systems produce cyclic oligoadenylate second messengers.  NATURE. 548 (7669): 543-+

Modell, Joshua W.; Jiang, Wenyan; Marraffini, Luciano A. (2017). CRISPR-Cas systems exploit viral DNA injection to establish and maintain adaptive immunity. NATURE. 544 (7648): 101-+  

Marraffini, Luciano A. (2017). Sensing danger. PNAS. 114 (1): 15-16

Heler, Robert; Wright, Addison V.; Vucelja, Marija; et al. (2017). Mutations in Cas9 Enhance the Rate of Acquisition of Viral Spacer Sequences during the CRISPR-Cas Immune Response. MOLECULAR CELL. 65 (1): 168-175

Marraffini, Luciano A. (2015). CRISPR-Cas immunity in prokaryotes. NATURE. 526 (7571): 55-61

McGinn, Jon; Marraffini, Luciano A. (2016). CRISPR-Cas Systems Optimize Their Immune Response by Specifying the Site of Spacer Integration. MOLECULAR CELL. 64 (3): 616-623

Barrangou, Rodolphe; Marraffini, Luciano A. (2014). CRISPR-Cas Systems: Prokaryotes Upgrade to Adaptive Immunity. MOLECULAR CELL. 54 (2): 234-244

Cong, Le; Ran, F. Ann; Cox, David; et al. (2013). Multiplex Genome Engineering Using CRISPR/Cas Systems.  SCIENCE. 339 (6121): 819-823

 

 

Recommended Readings: Daniel Kronauer, Ph.D., Friday September 15th, 2017

Friday Lectures

Friday, September 15, 2017  3:45 p.m.

Caspary Auditorium

Daniel Kronauer, Ph.D.

Stanley S. and Sydney R. Shuman Assistant Professor and Head

Laboratory of Social Evolution and Behavior

The Rockefeller University

Communication and Social Behavior in Ants

Recommended Readings:

News provided by NYU Langone Health (2017). Mutant Ants provide insights into social interaction.

Trible, Waring; Olivos-Cisneros, Leonora; McKenzie, Sean K.; et al. (2017). orco Mutagenesis Causes Loss of Antennal Lobe Glomeruli and Impaired Social Behavior in Ants. CELL. 170 (4): 727-+  

McKenzie, Sean K.; Fetter-Pruneda, Ingrid; Ruta, Vanessa; et al. (2016). Transcriptomics and neuroanatomy of the clonal raider ant implicate an expanded clade of odorant receptors in chemical communication. PNAS. 113 (49): 14091-14096

Leonhardt, Sara Diana; Menzel, Florian; Nehring, Volker; et al. (2016). Ecology and Evolution of Communication in Social Insects. CELL. 164 (6): 1277-1287

Oxley, Peter R.; Ji, Lu; Fetter-Pruneda, Ingrid; et al. (2014). The Genome of the Clonal Raider Ant Cerapachys biroi. CURRENT BIOLOGY. 24 (4): 451-458  

Sumner, Seirian (2014). The importance of genomic novelty in social evolution. MOLECULAR ECOLOGY. 23 (1): 26-28

 

Recommended Readings: Sue Biggins, Ph.D., Friday May 5th, 2017

Friday Lectures

Friday, May 5th, 2017   3:45 p.m.

Caspary Auditorium

Sue Biggins, Ph.D.

Member and Associate Director

Division of Basic Sciences

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center

Sensing Tension at Kinetochores

Recommended Readings:

https://www.ibiology.org/ibioseminars/chromosome-segregation.html 

Miller, Matthew P.; Asbury, Charles L.; Biggins, Sue (2016). A TOG Protein Confers Tension Sensitivity to Kinetochore-Microtubule Attachments. CELL. 165(6): 1428-1439

Musacchio, Andrea (2015). The Molecular Biology of Spindle Assembly Checkpoint Signaling Dynamics. CURRENT BIOLOGY.  25(20): R1002-R1018

Biggins, Sue (2015). Under tension: Kinetochores and Basic Research. GENETICS. 200(3): 681-682

London, Nitobe; Biggins, Sue (2014). Signalling dynamics in the spindle checkpoint response. NATURE REVIEWS MOLECULAR CELL BIOLOGY. 15 (11): 735-747

Sarangapani, Krishna K.; Duro, Eris; Deng, Yi; et al. (2014). Sister kinetochores are mechanically fused during meiosis I in yeast. SCIENCE. 346(6206): 248-251

Biggins, Sue (2013). The Composition, Functions, and Regulation of the Budding Yeast Kinetochore. GENETICS. 194(4): 817-846

Gonen, Shane; Akiyoshi, Bungo; Iadanza, Matthew G.; et al. (2012). The structure of purified kinetochores reveals multiple microtubule-attachment sites. NATURE STRUCTURAL & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY. 19( 9): 925-929